A version of the Magna Carta (the Great Charter of Ireland), substituting Dublin for London and the Irish Church for, the English church at the time, the Catholic Church, was published in 1216 and the Parliament of Ireland was founded in 1297. The island fields a single international team in most sports. Ireland has a total area of 84,421 km2 (32,595 sq mi),[1][2][126] of which the Republic of Ireland occupies 83 percent. [197] William Thomson, or Lord Kelvin, is the person whom the absolute temperature unit, the kelvin, is named after. The Irish philosopher and theologian Johannes Scotus Eriugena was considered one of the leading intellectuals of the early Middle Ages. Katie Taylor has won gold in every European and World championship since 2005. The headquarters of the GAA (and the main stadium) is located at the 82,500[205] capacity Croke Park in north Dublin. Since the European Union expanded to include Poland in 2004, Polish people have made up the largest number of immigrants (over 150,000)[172] from Central Europe. Simultaneously the Volunteers, which became known as the Irish Republican Army (IRA), launched a three-year guerrilla war, which ended in a truce in July 1921 (although violence continued until June 1922, mostly in Northern Ireland). River Shannon, the island's longest river at 386 km (240 mi) long, rises in County Cavan in the north west and flows through Limerick in the mid west. Despite their country's neutrality, approximately 50,000[85] volunteers from independent Ireland joined the British forces during the war, four being awarded Victoria Crosses. The North/South Inter-Parliamentary Association is a joint parliamentary forum for the island of Ireland. GDP fell by 3% in 2008 and by 7.1% in 2009, the worst year since records began (although earnings by foreign-owned businesses continued to grow). This control was consolidated during the wars and conflicts of the 17th century, including the English and Scottish colonisation in the Plantations of Ireland, the Wars of the Three Kingdoms and the Williamite War. However, both the IFA and FAI continued to select their teams from the whole of Ireland, with some players earning international caps for matches with both teams. Ireland fields a single national rugby team and a single association, the Irish Rugby Football Union, governs the sport across the island. A minority, approximately 13,000, retained the Irish Volunteers' name and opposed Ireland's involvement in the war. In addition European Union membership was helpful, giving the country lucrative access to markets that it had previously reached only through the United Kingdom, and pumping huge subsidies and investment capital into the Irish economy. Official website of Tourism Ireland for visitors to the island of Ireland. Ireland has four provinces, including the Ulster Province that also englobes Northern Ireland. [51] These raids added to a pattern of raiding and endemic warfare that was already deep-seated in Ireland. This subsided following a political agreement in 1998. [119][120] The County Mayo field faces some localised opposition over a controversial decision to refine the gas onshore. This ecosystem stretches across the countryside and acts as a network of connections to preserve remnants of the ecosystem that once covered the island. However, they are now connected with three interlinks[116] and also connected through Great Britain to mainland Europe. [193] Vocal and instrumental music (e.g. In 1973 the Republic of Ireland joined the European Economic Community while the United Kingdom, and Northern Ireland, as part of it, did the same. There is continued debate over the missions of Palladius and Patrick, but the consensus is that they both took place[46] and that the older druid tradition collapsed in the face of the new religion. [23] According to John T. Koch and others, Ireland in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-network culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that also included Britain, western France and Iberia, and that this is where Celtic languages developed. [177], There is now a network of urban Irish speakers in both the Republic and Northern Ireland, especially in Dublin and Belfast,[citation needed] with the children of such Irish speakers sometimes attending Irish-medium schools (Gaelscoil). Country Code: +353: International Exit Code: 00: Continent: Europa: Area: 70,280 km 2: … The Irish language is widely taught in all schools, and it is still spoken as a first language in some areas of the country, known as the Gaeltacht. [10][11] In Europe, the average woodland cover is over 33%. Ireland is now one of the least forested countries in Europe. [129] Western areas are mainly mountainous and rocky with green panoramic vistas. This church levy, called Peter's Pence, is extant in Ireland as a voluntary donation. The same president can only be elected twice (14 years). [100] Owing to the civil unrest during the Troubles, the British government suspended home rule in 1972 and imposed direct rule. If you are not a citizen of Ireland or the UK, you will not be able to exercise Common Travel Area rights. Nationalists, mainly Roman Catholic, wanted to unite Ireland as an independent republic, whereas unionists, mainly Protestant, wanted Northern Ireland to remain in the United Kingdom. [15], During the last glacial period, and until about 10,000 BC, most of Ireland was periodically covered in ice. Irish is the first official language, followed by English. In cities, heat is generally supplied by natural gas or heating oil, although some urban suppliers distribute sods of turf as "smokeless fuel" for domestic use. However, a number of finds of Roman coins have been made, for example at the Iron Age settlement of Freestone Hill near Gowran and Newgrange. Boxing is governed by the Irish Athletic Boxing Association. [40] The relationship between the Roman Empire and the kingdoms of ancient Ireland is unclear. In a system that developed between the 13th and 17th centuries,[158] Ireland has 32 traditional counties. He is largely regarded as one of the founders of modern chemistry and is best known for the formulation of Boyle's law.[196]. Later in the century, Charles Stewart Parnell and others campaigned for autonomy within the Union, or "Home Rule". [88] The Republic's real GDP grew by an average of 9.6% per annum between 1995 and 1999,[89] in which year the Republic joined the euro. [127] Ireland and Great Britain, together with many nearby smaller islands, are known collectively as the British Isles. ", "Independent International Commission on Decommissioning", "Country Comparison: GDP – per capita (PPP)", "Human Development Report 2015: Table A1.1", "National Competitiveness Council Submission on the National Development Plan 2007–2013", "Regional GDP GDP per capita in the EU in 2011: seven capital regions among the ten most prosperous", "World Economic Outlook Database, October 2019", "About SEMO: The Single Electricity Market", "Interconnection: East-West Interconnector", "Bord Gáis Marks Completion of South-North Pipeline", "Northern Ireland Energy Holdings – Frequently Asked Questions", "Options For Future Renewable Energy Policy, Targets And Programmes issued by Department of Communications, Energy and Natural Resources", "FAQ: What is the longest river in Ireland? The remainder is Northern Ireland, which is part of the United Kingdom. During that time, Ulster (1999),[208] Munster (2006[209] and 2008)[208] and Leinster (2009, 2011 and 2012)[208] have won the Heineken Cup. In 2010, Graeme McDowell became the first Irish golfer to win the U.S. Open, and the first European to win that tournament since 1970. [194] However during the 1960s, there was a revival of interest in Irish traditional music led by groups such as The Dubliners, The Chieftains, The Wolfe Tones, the Clancy Brothers, Sweeney's Men and individuals like Seán Ó Riada and Christy Moore. Ireland facts for kids With no large apex predators in Ireland other than humans and dogs, such populations of animals as semi-wild deer that cannot be controlled by smaller predators, such as the fox, are controlled by annual culling. Ireland has won more medals in boxing than in any other Olympic sport. [178] Recent research suggests that urban Irish is developing in a direction of its own, both in pronunciation and grammar. Great poverty encouraged a subsistence approach to food, and by the mid-19th century the vast majority of the population sufficed with a diet of potatoes and milk. Common Travel Area rights can only be exercised by citizens of Ireland and the UK. Retrieved 30 November 2012. Belfast, with 579,726 residents, is the largest city in Northern Ireland. By 1900, however, cultural nationalists had begun the Gaelic revival, which saw the beginnings of modern literature in Irish. During its first decade, the newly formed Irish Free State was governed by the victors of the civil war. [19] The earliest evidence for farming in Ireland or Great Britain is from Ferriter's Cove, County Kerry, where a flint knife, cattle bones and a sheep's tooth were carbon-dated to c. 4350 BC. With so much to choose from, there is quite literally sometimes for everyone in gorgeous Ireland. The GDP of the Republic of Ireland as of 2018 was $382.754 billion (nominal),[108] and in Northern Ireland as of 2016 it was €43 billion (nominal). The lake is also recognized as the largest lake in the British Isles. In 1921, following an incident in which, despite an earlier promise, the IFA moved an Irish Cup semi-final replay from Dublin to Belfast,[207] Dublin-based clubs broke away to form the Football Association of the Irish Free State. One notable exception to this is association football, although both associations continued to field international teams under the name "Ireland" until the 1950s. However, it was not until 1949 that the state was declared, officially, to be the Republic of Ireland. The long history of agricultural production, coupled with modern intensive agricultural methods such as pesticide and fertiliser use and runoff from contaminants into streams, rivers and lakes, has placed pressure on biodiversity in Ireland. [174] A quarter of births (24 percent) in 2009 were to mothers born outside Ireland. The Gaelic Revival of the early 20th century has had a long-term influence. Daniel O'Connell led a subsequent campaign, for the repeal of the Act of Union, which failed. Its lush vegetation is a product of its mild but changeable climate which is free of extremes in temperature. Several different habitat types are found in Ireland, including farmland, open woodland, temperate broadleaf and mixed forests, conifer plantations, peat bogs and a variety of coastal habitats. Ireland is the second-largest island of the British Isles, the third-largest in Europe, and the twentieth-largest on Earth. It declined under British rule but remained the majority tongue until the early 19th century, and since then has been a minority language. [225] A typical family, consisting of a man, a woman and four children, would eat 18 stone (110 kg) of potatoes per week. Since the last quarter of the 20th century, with a re-emergence of wealth in Ireland, a "New Irish Cuisine" based on traditional ingredients incorporating international influences[226] has emerged. They share an open border and both are part of the Common Travel Area. Grazing in this manner is one of the main factors preventing the natural regeneration of forests across many regions of the country.[155]. Shelta, the language of the nomadic Irish Travellers is native to Ireland.[184]. The population of Ireland collapsed dramatically during the second half of the 19th century. The title of King of Ireland was re-created in 1542 by Henry VIII, the then King of England, of the Tudor dynasty. Over the past 1,200 years, Vikings, Normans, Welsh, Flemings, Scots, English, Africans, Eastern Europeans and South Americans have all added to the population and have had significant influences on Irish culture. The winters destroyed stored crops of potatoes and other staples, and the poor summers severely damaged harvests. Mass emigration became deeply entrenched and the population continued to decline until the mid-20th century. In the former County Dublin live 1.418 million people (= 28.5%) at the same time. 8. Kathleen Lonsdale, born in Ireland and most known for her work with crystallography, became the first female president of the British Association for the Advancement of Science.[200]. Regular Northern Ireland landline phones can also be called by simply swapping the 028 area … Irish athletics has seen a heightened success rate since the year 2000, with Sonia O'Sullivan winning two medals at 5,000 metres on the track; gold at the 1995 World Championships and silver at the 2000 Sydney Olympics. The Republic of Ireland's national theatre is the Abbey Theatre, which was founded in 1904, and the national Irish-language theatre is An Taibhdhearc, which was established in 1928 in Galway. Gaelic games are governed by the Gaelic Athletic Association (GAA), with the exception of women's Gaelic football and camogie (women's variant of hurling), which are governed by separate organisations. The introduction of the potato in the second half of the 16th century heavily influenced cuisine thereafter. His most influential work was Aether and Matter, a book on theoretical physics published in 1900. Music has been in evidence in Ireland since prehistoric times. The population rebounded and multiplied over the next century, but the Great Famine of the 1840s caused one million deaths and forced over one million more to emigrate in its immediate wake. 9. In 2003 it represented 34% of total sports attendances at events in Ireland and abroad, followed by hurling at 23%, soccer at 16% and rugby at 8%. Support for Irish republicanism increased further due to the ongoing war in Europe, as well as the Conscription Crisis of 1918. As with electricity, the natural gas distribution network is also now all-island, with a pipeline linking Gormanston, County Meath, and Ballyclare, County Antrim. The provinces as well as all cities and legal towns with more than 2,500 inhabitants. He was elected as Member of Parliament for Ennis in a surprise result and despite being unable to take his seat as a Roman Catholic. Inland areas are warmer in summer and colder in winter. An island country in the North Atlantic, Ireland has an area of 84,421 km 2 (32,595 sq mi). In 2000, it was the sixth-richest country in the world in terms of GDP per capita. The republic's capital is Dublin. Salient events in the economic history of Ireland include: Ireland is located in the north-west of Europe, between latitudes 51° and 56° N, and longitudes 11° and 5° W. It is separated from Great Britain by the Irish Sea and the North Channel, which has a width of 23 kilometres (14 mi)[125] at its narrowest point. The country is sometimes called the Republic of Ireland in order to distinguish between the territory of the Irish state and island proper, but Ireland is its official name. Over the following century, the population was reduced by over half, at a time when the general trend in European countries was for populations to rise by an average of three-fold. Ireland has made a large contribution to world literature in all its branches, both in Irish and English. Country occupying most of the island of Ireland, nw Europe.

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