During the Cultural Revolution, mosques were often defaced, closed or demolished, and copies of the Quran were destroyed by the Red Guards. [44], According to Zhou Youguang, Confucianism's name in Chinese, basically 儒 rú, originally referred to shamanic methods of holding rites and existed before Confucius' times, but with Confucius it came to mean devotion to propagating such teachings to bring civilisation to the people. [240], In Chinese religion yin and yang constitute the polarity that describes the order of the universe,[203] held in balance by the interaction of principles of growth or expansion (shen) and principles of waning or contraction (gui),[6] with act (yang) usually preferred over receptiveness (yin). It may also be called "Manchu Shamanism" (满族萨满教 Mǎnzú sàmǎnjiào) by virtue of the word "shaman" being originally from Tungusic šamán ("man of knowledge"),[335]:235 later applied by Western scholars to similar religious practices in other cultures. What Westerners referred to as Nestorianism flourished for centuries, until Emperor Wuzong of the Tang in 845 ordained that all foreign religions (Buddhism, Christianity and Zoroastrianism) had to be eradicated from the Chinese nation. It began to grow to become a significant influence in China proper only after the fall of the Han dynasty, in the period of political division. In unserem Nachrichtenticker können Sie live die neuesten Eilmeldungen auf Deutsch von Portalen, Zeitungen, Magazinen und Blogs lesen sowie nach älteren Meldungen suchen. The most prominent early community were the so-called Kaifeng Jews, in Kaifeng, Henan province. auch immer, ob du auf der Recherche nach einem neuen buecherei-st-peter.de, einer energiesparenden Kanzleramt oder einem Säuglingskutsche bist. [8]:384, Founded by Manchu rulers, the Qing dynasty (1636–1912) promoted the teachings of Confucius as the textual tradition superior to all others. Zhuang folk religion, sometimes called Moism (摩教 Mójiào) or Shigongism (师公教 Shīgōngjiào, "religion of the [Zhuang] ancestral father"), after two of its forms, is practised by most of the Zhuang people, the largest ethnic minority of China, who inhabit the province of Guangxi. After the liberalisation of religions in China in the 1980s, there has been a growing movement of adoption of the Gelug sect, and other Tibetan-originated Buddhist schools, by the Han Chinese. The former festival is to worship the God of Heaven, while the latter is dedicated to the god of mountains. Being well received by the population, even Confucian preachers started to appear on television since 2006. (Playback ID: GP8qeXzdbLKVzfG7) Learn More. In earlier China, Taoists were thought of as hermits or ascetics who did not participate in political life. [277] This transformation of the self may be extended to the family and society to create a harmonious fiduciary community. German I Turkish I French I Japanese. Some of the early leaders of the early republic (1912–49), such as Sun Yat-sen, were converts to Christianity and were influenced by its teachings. Their data are mostly ungrounded or manipulated through undue interpretations, as "survey results do not support the authors' assertions". [342] Every aobao represents a god; there are aobaoes dedicated to heavenly gods, mountain gods, other gods of nature, and also to gods of human lineages and agglomerations. [393] Monks were also beaten or killed. They share elements that go back to the 4th century BCE and to the prehistoric culture of China, such as the School of Yin and Yang and the thought of Laozi and Zhuangzi. [280], In 2005, the Center for the Study of Confucian Religion was established[279] and guoxue ("national learning") started to be implemented in public schools. Folk religious movements of salvation constitute 2–3% to 13% of the population, while many in the intellectual class adhere to Confucianism as a religious identity. of positive theology) in character, while professional Taoism as "kenotic" and "apophatic" (i.e. [303], In the Shang and later Zhou dynasty (c. 1046 BCE – 256 BCE), shamans had an important role in the political hierarchy, and were represented institutionally by the Ministry of Rites (大宗拍). Taoism may be described, as does the scholar and Taoist initiate Kristofer Schipper in The Taoist Body (1986), as a doctrinal and liturgical framework or structure for developing the local cults of indigenous religion. [391]:149 A Parsi fire temple was built in Shanghai in 1866, and was destroyed during the Cultural Revolution. [390] In the Tang period it is attested that there were at least twenty-nine Zoroastrian fire temples in northern urban centres. While China’s constitution allows religious belief, adherents across all religious organizations, from state-sanctioned to underground and banned groups, face intensifying persecution and repression. Jahrhundert zurück, bevor er sich schließlich in der Tang-Dynastie durchsetzte. The second phase of Zoroastrianism in China was in the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–960), and saw the development of an indigenous Chinese Zoroastrianism that lasted until modern times. [301] Rather, they represent an intermediate level between the wu and the Taoists. [277] As defined by Stephan Feuchtwang, Heaven is thought to have an ordering law which preserves the world, which has to be followed by humanity by means of a "middle way" between yin and yang forces; social harmony or morality is identified as patriarchy, which is the worship of ancestors and progenitors in the male line, in ancestral shrines.[200]. Since the late 20th century, along with the study of religion in general, the study of Judaism and Jews in China as an academic subject has blossomed with the establishment of institutions such as Diane and Guilford Glazer Institute of Jewish Studies and the China Judaic Studies Association.[380]. He argues that the Jesuit missionaries of the 16th century selected Confucius from many possible sages to serve as the counterpart to Christ or Muhammad in order to meet European religion categories. As of 2010 approximately 5% of the population of Macau self-identifies as Christian, predominantly Catholic.[163]. [297][299] Some Western scholars have described vernacular Taoist traditions as "cataphatic" (i.e. [311] The cult of Genghis is also shared by the Han, claiming his spirit as the founding principle of the Yuan dynasty.[340]:23. Although the two types of priests, daoshi and fashi, have the same roles in Chinese society—in that they may marry and they perform rituals for communities' temples or private homes—Zhengyi daoshi emphasise their Taoist tradition, distinguished from the vernacular tradition of the fashi. The Vatican spokesman Greg Burke described the agreement as "not political but pastoral, allowing the faithful to have bishops who are in communion with Rome but at the same time recognized by Chinese authorities". Later, the Manichaean bishop Mihr-Ohrmazd, who was Mōzak's pupil, also came to China, where he was granted an audience by empress Wu Zetian (684–704), and according to later Buddhist sources he presented at the throne the Erzongjing ("Text of the Two Principles") that became the most popular Manichaean scripture in China. Even Chinese Buddhism adapted to common Chinese cosmology by paralleling its concept of a triune supreme with Shakyamuni, Amithaba and Maitreya representing respectively enlightenment, salvation and post-apocalyptic paradise,[204] while the Tathātā (真如 zhēnrú, "suchness") is generally identified as the supreme being itself. In Confucian thought, human beings are always teachable, improvable, and perfectible through personal and communal endeavor of self-cultivation and self-creation. [305] Such interaction gave rise to uniquely Han Chinese Buddhist schools (汉传佛教 Hànchuán Fójiào). The emperor was considered the supreme shaman, intermediating between the three realms of heaven, earth and humanity. Hauptvertretung dieses Glaubens ist die Chinesische Buddhistische Gesellschaft, die sich für den Wiederaufbau einiger Tempelanlagen und buddhistischer Klöster einsetzen. [234] Taoist traditions emphasise living in harmony with the Tao (also romanised as Dao). China blickt auf eine rund fünftausendjährige Geschichte zurück. [277] Individuals may realise their humanity and become one with Heaven through the contemplation of this order. Religion in China (CFPS 2014)[1][2][note 1]. Commercial travel opened China to influences from foreign cultures. Der wesentliche Grund liegt jedoch darin, dass die Chinesen keine, wie beim Christentum üblich, vorgegebenen Regeln oder feste Zugangsrituale wie beispielsweise die Zeremonie der Taufe besitzen, die eine Zugehörigkeit eindeutig erkennen lassen. [360] The scholar Richard Madsen noted that "the Christian God then becomes one in a pantheon of local gods among whom the rural population divides its loyalties". They were part of the project of cultural assimilation of Manchuria into Japan, or Japanisation, the same policy that was being applied to Taiwan. Chinese Catholics resisted the new government's move towards state control and independence from the Vatican. [243], Since the 1980s Chinese folk religions experienced a revival in both mainland China and Taiwan. Mark Juergensmeyer observes that Confucianism itself is primarily pragmatic and humanist, in it the "thisworldliness" being the priority. [300], Fashi are tongji practitioners (southern mediumship), healers, exorcists and they officiate jiao rituals of "universal salvation" (although historically they were excluded from performing such rites[297]). Statuary effigies were previously exclusively used for Buddhist bodhisattva and Taoist gods. Schriftzeugen der Kultur Chinas gibt es seit etwa 3500 Jahren, doch ihr Ursprung liegt noch weiter zurück. [125], Judaism (犹太教 Yóutàijiào) was introduced during the Tang dynasty (618–907) or earlier, by small groups of Jews settled in China. The performance of rites (礼 lǐ) is the key characteristic of common Chinese religion, which scholars see as going back to Neolithic times. [352], Christianity (基督教 Jīdūjiào, "religion of Christ") in China comprises Roman Catholicism (天主教 Tiānzhǔjiào, "religion of the Lord of Heaven"), Protestantism (基督教新教 Jīdūjiào xīnjiào, "New-Christianity"), and a small number of Orthodox Christians (正教 Zhèngjiào). [311] This movement has been favoured by the proselytism of Chinese-speaking Tibetan lamas throughout China. A glaring example is the god Hanuman, who gave rise to the Chinese god Hóuwáng (猴王 "Monkey King"), known as Sun Wukong in the Journey to the West. The folk religion of central-northern China (North China Plain), otherwise, is focused on the communal worship of tutelary deities of creation and nature as identitary symbols, by villages populated by families of different surnames,[150] structured into "communities of the god(s)" (shénshè 神社, or huì 会, "association"),[151] which organise temple ceremonies (miaohui 庙会), involving processions and pilgrimages,[152] and led by indigenous ritual masters (fashi) who are often hereditary and linked to secular authority. [368]:33 Yanbian Korean churches have been a matter of controversy for the Chinese government because of their links to South Korean churches. [85] Between 1898 and 1904 the imperial government issued a measure to "build schools with temple property" (庙产兴学 miàochǎn xīngxué). According to the results of an official census provided in 1995 by the Information Office of the State Council of China, at that time the Chinese traditional religions were already popular among nearly 1 billion people. [82], As a reaction, the Boxer Rebellion at the turn of the century (1899–1901) would have been inspired by indigenous Chinese movements against the influence of Christian missionaries—"devils" as they were called by the Boxers—and Western colonialism. In the late 20th century there was a reactivation of the state cults devoted to the Yellow Emperor and the Red Emperor. [224], The economic dimension of Chinese folk religion is also important. Historical sources speak of the religion being introduced in China in 694, though this may have happened much earlier. Duāngōng are the custodians of Qiang theology, history and mythology. They also administer the coming of age ceremony for 18 years-old boys, called the "sitting on top of the mountain", which involves the boy's entire family going to mountain tops, to sacrifice a sheep or cow and to plant three cypress trees. [201] In the tradition of New Text Confucianism, Confucius is regarded as a "throne-less king" of the God of Heaven and a savior of the world. In the 2010s they were served by 35,000 to 45,000 mosques, 40,000 to 50,000 imams (ahong), and 10 Quranic institutions. Unser Newsticker zum Thema China Religion enthält aktuelle Nachrichten von heute Freitag, dem 26. A practice developed in the Chinese folk religion of post-Maoist China, that started in the 1990s from the Confucian temples managed by the Kong kin (the lineage of the descendants of Confucius himself), is the representation of ancestors in ancestral shrines no longer just through tablets with their names, but through statues. The vast majority of Buddhists in China, counted in the hundreds of millions, are Chinese Buddhists, while Tibetan Buddhists are in the number of the tens of millions. In 731 a Manichaean priest was asked by the current Chinese emperor to make a summary of Manichaean religious doctrines, so that he wrote the Compendium of the Teachings of Mani, the Awakened One of Light, rediscovered at Dunhuang by Aurel Stein (1862–1943); in this text Mani is interpreted as an incarnation of Laozi. A further type of folk religious movements, possibly overlapping with the "secret sects", are the martial sects. Um Kommentare zu schreiben, stelle bitte sicher, dass JavaScript und Cookies aktiviert sind, und lade Sie die Seite neu. [368]:37, If the current trend continues, China will have the largest Christian population in the world as some have estimated. From earliest times, the Chinese tended to be all-embracing rather than to treat different religious traditions as separate and independent. In addition, ethnic minority groups practice distinctive religions, including Tibetan Buddhism, and Islam among the Hui and Uyghur peoples. [39] Chinese thinkers, faced with this challenge to legitimacy, diverged in a "Hundred Schools of Thought", each proposing its own theories for the reconstruction of the Zhou moral order. Verbreitete Religionen sind Buddhismus, Daoismus, Islam, Christentum und Lamaismus (in Tibet und der inneren Mongolei). According to the scholar Stephan Feuchtwang, rites are conceived as "what makes the invisible visible", making possible for humans to cultivate the underlying order of nature. [101], A turning point was reached in 2005, when folk religious cults began to be protected and promoted under the policies of intangible cultural heritage. [74], In the Tang dynasty (618–907) the concept of "Tian" became more common at the expense of "Di", continuing a tendency that started in the Han dynasty. The Jesuits brought Western sciences, becoming advisers to the imperial court on astronomy, taught mathematics and mechanics, but also adapted Chinese religious ideas such as admiration for Confucius and ancestor veneration into the religious doctrine they taught in China. Untergruppen sind der sunnitische und der schiitische Islam. Zhou kings declared that their victory over the Shang was because they were virtuous and loved their people, while the Shang were tyrants and thus were deprived of power by Tian. Anders als in Deutschland praktizieren Katholiken sowie Protestanten in China den Glauben in strikter Trennung. Some breathing techniques practised in Shaktism are known as Cīnācāra ("Chinese Practice"), and the Shakta tantras that discuss them trace their origin to Taoism. After the fall of the Qing, Sun Yat-sen proclaimed that the country belonged equally to the Han, Manchu, Mongol, Tibetan and Hui peoples. [4] Many churches, temples and mosques were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution, which also criminalized the possession of religious texts. This page was last edited on 29 March 2021, at 20:53. Es una religión politeísta y con ciertos elementos del chamanismo, profundamente influenciada por el budismo, el confucianismo y el taoísmo. Most of the world's major religions are practiced by native Chinese people with great devotion. Deine E-Mail-Adresse wird nicht veröffentlicht. [263] They are religious communities of initiatory and secretive character, including rural militias such as the Red Spears (紅槍會) and the Big Knives (大刀會), and fraternal organisations such as the Green Gangs (青幫) and the Elders' Societies (哥老會).